Colourised and speed-corrected footage of San Francisco in 1906.
Astronaut habitats on Mars will have to be buried 1.5 metres under the surface. Shielding isn’t going to cut it. “…the presence of this shielding can lead to “cosmic ray showers,” where the impact of (heavy-ion radiation) against shielding creates secondary particles that can flood a habitat’s interior with varying levels of neutron radiation (aka. neutron flux). These can contribute significantly to the effective dose of radiation astronauts will absorb.”
“If there are so many galaxies, stars, and planets, where are all the aliens, and why haven’t we heard from them? Those are the simple questions at the heart of the Fermi Paradox. In a new paper, a pair of researchers ask the next obvious question: How long will we have to survive to hear from another alien civilization? Their answer? 400,000 years.“